Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Mycetoma:

 

Cytology

Mycetoma can be accurately diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) cytology. Mycetoma lesion has a distinct appearance in a cytological smear characterised by the presence of polymorphous inflammatory cells consisting of an admixture of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, histiocytes, macrophages and foreign body giant cells and grains. In sections, the grain is closely surrounded by and occasionally infiltrated by neutrophils causing its fragmentation. Outside the neutrophil zone, monocytic cells and giant cells are seen. Thisis surrounded by granulation tissue rich in fibroblasts and blood vessels. FNA cytology allows morphological identification of mycetoma and its classification into eumycetoma and actinomycetoma; this is important as the treatment depends mainly on the aetiological agents.

The technique is simple, cheap, rapid, sensitive and can be tolerated by patients. It can be used not only in routine diagnosis but can be used as an effective mean in the collection of material for culture and immunological studies. Due to the simplicity of the technique, it can be used in epidemiological survey of mycetoma and for detection of early cases in which the radiological and serological techniques may not be helpful.

EL Hag IA, Fahal AH, Khali EAG, Fine needle aspiration cytology of mycetoma. Acta Cytologica. 1996; 40(3): 461-464.

Yousif BM, Fahal AH, Yahia MY. The Cell Block Technique: A New Diagnostic Tool for Mycetoma. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010; 104(1):6-9.